Applied Technology and Instrumentation for Process Control

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & SCIENCE
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Instrumentation and Control, A.A.S.

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Program Description In all process industries, quantities such as temperature, pressure, level and flow need to be measured and controlled. Control and measurement are done by various means including: electronic, pneumatic, and hydraulic equipment, and computers. The instrumentation technician installs, maintains, tests and calibrates the equipment used to control and measure. The technician works with the process designers and the work includes troubleshooting control loops, adjusting controllers and systems, and programming and troubleshooting computers. Career Opportunities Graduates may be employed in electrical power generation including nuclear , mineral processing, petrochemical, pulp and paper, car manufacturing plants, pharmaceuticals, or natural gas compressor stations, or water and wastewater treatment facilities amongst many others.

Contact Information Aaron Klooster Tel: ext. Or mature student status an applicant who does not have a high school diploma or equivalent, and will have reached the age of 19 years on or before the start of the program. Mature students must undergo academic testing prior to admission into a program. Call the Admissions Office at for more details. Note: Academic prerequisites for this program may be obtained free of charge through Academic Upgrading.

Its purpose is to develop a foundation for future courses. A clear understanding of basic concepts and their applications to problem solving will be stressed. IT Basic Techniques This introductory course teaches basic principles, terminology and techniques used in process control. Safety, calibration procedures for instrumentation equipment, and control loop diagrams are core subjects. Theory on measuring and test equipment, transducers and recorders is strongly reinforced in hands-on lab assignments throughout the semester.

IT Measuring Principles I This two-module course teaches the essentials of pressure and flow measurement in the process industries. Module One topics include: pressure calculations, manometers, pressure elements, gauges, pneumatic and electrical pressure transmitters and differential pressure transmitters. Module Two topics include: using differential pressure transmitters for flow measurement, mechanical, electrical and mass flow meters, weirs and flumes for open channel measurements and weighing and belt scales for solids measurements.

MA Mathematics I This course covers basic algebra properties, graphing the straight line, basic geometry and trigonometry, and solving a system of equations algebraically. This course also covers vector addition by components and by the cosine and sine laws. Topics include the Act and several related regulations. CH — Chemistry This course is an introductory course in the study of chemistry. This study of analytical chemistry makes use of solution concepts to understand the chemistry on which analytical procedures are based, and how changes in various parameters can affect the equilibrium of the chemical system.

Students will be exposed to the various forms of spectroscopy, chromatography, and other analytical methods. Students will apply the appropriate principles and formats to job-related documents and will continue to review grammatical structures and apply editing strategies. EE Electrical Fundamentals II Topics include: interpretation and application of simple wiring and elementary diagrams, standard electrical symbols, electrical control pilot devices, relays, contactors, motor starters, timing relays, float switch, flow switch, limit switch, proximity switch, temperature switch, two-wire control, three-wire control, hand-off automatic control, multiple push button stations, jogging control circuits, time-delay low voltage release relay.

In the first module, as well as capacitors and inductors are introduced as fundamental electronic building blocks. In the second module, electronic devices including diodes, transistors and transistor amplifiers, integrated circuits and operational amplifiers and op-amp circuits are introduced. Further study of process control terminology, controller indicators, adjustments and options and controller types is followed by an introduction to the proportional, integral and derivative algorithms used to tune controllers to a process.

Valve bodies, valve actuators and valve positioners are studied as the primary choice of final control element encountered in industry. In the event ofthe Proj. The other engineers on the team must make the project engineer fullyaware of the situation as far as their area of responsibility is concerned. This is importantbecause only when one is fully aware of all the facts, and is not forced to work onassumptions, can correct decisions be taken.

This exchange of information is bestachieved at regular preferably on a specific day of the week weekly meetings of thegroup, or, if really urgent, a meeting with the individual engineer concerned should becalled at the appropriate time. Information exchange flows not only upward from theengineers on the team, but also from the project engineer downward, since the first linkbetween project manager and technologists is through the project engineer.

All projectdocumentation should be approved by the project engineer, but not before the relevant. Appiled technology and instrumentation for process control engineer has fully checked the document and signed it off as being approved. The project engineer should handle equipment that is common to the whole controlsystem e.

For simplicity here, only the procedure for managing theprocurement of the power distribution system will be described in some detail; all otherpurchases will be handled in a similar manner. The basic design of the power distributionsystem is determined by the project engineer based on data provided by each engineer onthe project who is responsible for ensuring the correct load current for each part of theprocess areas allocated.

The design is then circulated to the team for comment and, ifnecessary, any modifications are made. The vendor for this equipment, which is chosen atthe initial bid preparation stage, is now approached, with the final specification preparedby the project manager and requested to provide a confirmation of the bid price. However, on this occasion the specification is based on real information now provided. The kickoff meeting with the vendor, attended by the project manager and projectengineer, sets the working relationships, makes requests for confirming the dates for thereceipt of equipment, dates for the supply of preliminary review and final drawings, andsets up the protocol for equipment inspection, test, and delivery.

The projectadministrator adds the information to the project schedule. The project administrator uses the reported data to update the project schedule,and the project manager can now take any necessary action to keep the project on track. If permitted, most plant constructors will continually ask for changes to be made, basedon what they claim to be the evolving design of the process.

At the same time, they willinsist on maintaining the agreed-on completion date! The project manager has to be very firm and call a halt when foresightshows that these changes are jeopardizing the target completion date; otherwise, projectscheduling has no meaning. Some agreement has to be arrived at, mandating that anychange requested after a defined point in the schedule will be attended to after projectcompletion. This will inevitably cost more to implement, and the author is convinced thatit is primarily for this reason plant constructors want changes to be made during thenormal life of the contract.

All changes required during the life of the project will inevitably cost money and time;the project engineer must have an input for both of these aspects. This financial recovery aspect of project management can be verydemanding and usually involves shrewd negotiating ability. Construction companies, dueto their very considerable size and influence, believe that everything should go the waythey dictate; this is far from the reality. Instrument manufacturers and system houses alsohave considerable power, although in most instances they are reluctant to use it.

However, a well-timed intervention by the instrument and system supplier can bringrewards—for instance, calling a project halt when the contractor ignores several timely. Project management and administration and repeated requests for important information. But the circumstances and timing haveto be right; the effect of intervention can be salutary. The project engineer must attend all weekly project meetings convened by the projectmanager; the other members of the team if they are available, should also, also bepresent.

The objective of these weekly meetings is to let the team know the currentsituation and to give advance warning of any foreseeable problems. The most important means ofcommunication between these two disciplines is the engineering sketch. This documentmust be clear and precise if the results of the finished drawing are to be meaningful.

Itwill pay dividends for all engineers to prepare neat, fully documented sketches freehandif possible; tool-assisted sketches take too much time to prepare that leave little room forinterpretation by anyone who sees it. The author has found that a sheet of cartridge-quality graph paper with deep colored lines that show through when placed under anormal sheet of paper greatly assists in preparing good sketches and allows reasonablystraight lines to be drawn freehand. It is suggested that information on the arrangement ofcontrol loops be prepared using the bubble format similar to that seen in all loopdiagrams in this book.

This format for loop diagrams permits the system to beimplemented using any type of instrumentation, be it single case individual instruments or DCS. Loop diagrams, combined with process data and the tag number, will enable thetechnician to implement on a DCS the controls for the process that the engineer requires.

As mentioned earlier, it is vital that the engineer be fully aware of the field instrumentsbecause the system with which he is involved has to interface with them. Since thesignals produced by the field instrument have to be meaningful to the system, themeasurement has to be correct. Remember: a bad measurement must give bad control,and if one cannot measure the parameter even inferentially then one should give up anyhope of controlling it.

The idea of instrument compatibility is given realism, albeit it is asimple problem to solve, if we consider, for example, a split range loop where one controlvalve is manipulated over one part of the split range of the control signal, and anothercontrol valve is manipulated over the remainder. Under this condition of splitresponsibility for the control signal, each final actuator has to be calibrated to suit thesignal applied to it. The range splitting becomes a little more difficult when using discreteinstruments. To simplify the complexity and provide a workable solution, a scaler modulefor each part of the controlled output signal that is split, can be included in the system.

Note that in this example the scaler module suggested accepts the partial range of thecontrol output signal as its input and produces a full-range control signal output that isproportional to it. The scaler module output, when applied to the final actuator, will driveit correctly. The final actuators need no calibration because they will be standardinstruments and will work over their entire input signal range. The Role of the TechnicianOn large projects, of which Figure 8.

It must. Appiled technology and instrumentation for process control be realized, however, that some overlap between areas is bound to exist, and, for thecontrol to be seamless, all engineers must collaborate. The task of the project engineer isto ensure that those loops that are split between the assigned areas referred to earlier arealigned correctly and that all aspects of the plant instrumentation and control are covered. The role of the technician is to ensure that The technical requirements specified by the engineer are met; these tasks could be placing on order all the components that will make up the control system.

All drawings are updated in a timely way—though final responsibility for correctness rests with the engineer. Assisting with the assembly wiring and cabling of the system is provided. Assisting with the preliminary system checkout and testing is provided. Entering data into the database once again the responsibility for all data used lies with the assigned engineer after the system has been fully assembled mechanically and checked out electrically and preliminary tests have been completed.

On some very large projects, it could prove advantageous to assign an engineer tocoordinate and manage the system database and process graphics. This will allow theentire system to run efficiently by minimizing repetition and decreasing the time neededto access a desired parameter on the process. It will also make presentation of all theplant information and behavior to the process operators and engineers readily available. The system engineers satisfy themselves thatthe product meets the design specification and conduct the unwitnessed test on the entiresystem.

The cost for this test is included in the original bid price. However, the witnessedtests also have to be paid for, and normally the testing of a percentage of the total numberof control loops is allowed for in the offering. This percentage is defined to the contractorin the bid document. In the event tests need to be carried out on the whole system,additional costs are involved and are usually based on an hourly rate, which is alsodefined in the bid document.

In every instance upon completion of the database entry, the engineering team subjectsthe entire system to a series of tests. If necessary, any adjustments to the control schemesare made; each change is recorded so that the contractor and the end user are alerted tothe situation, and the modifications are fed back and recorded on the systemdocumentation. In all such instances, theproject manager must be the interface.

Only after the engineering team is satisfied thatthe system performs correctly are the contractor and the end user invited to witness thesystem performance. If the standard percentage number of tests is required, the witnesseschoose the loops to be demonstrated. In these tests as with all the others alreadyperformed , the entire loop is simulated so that the results of its behavior can be seen.

Project management and administration When satisfied that the system meets the specification requirement, the project managerpresents documents stating the approval, and appropriate signatures are obtained,allowing the equipment to be released for shipment. Experience has shown that when contractors areinvolved, the quantity required is phenomenal, and the resulting cost must be included inthe bid.

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In addition, individual engineers with contractors can sometimes be quitedemanding, and project managers must be on their guard against them. One should remember that instructionmanuals for equipment are produced to allow any buyer of the item to use it correctly. Itcannot therefore be produced as a project-specific document—not unless the contractor iswilling to pay an exorbitant amount of money to have it done specially.

It is always advantageous for the project engineer to produce an additional set ofproject manuals for use by his own service organization that will in almost every case beinvolved in maintenance of the system, or even be called on when the plant is beingcommissioned. Once again, experience has shown that project manuals are seldomavailable when required on site, despite the huge number supplied.

The first involves thetransfer to sites within the country of manufacture and the other for export. For shipmentsto sites within the country of origin, the type of packing used may not be as restricted asthat required for shipment abroad. If delivery is required to a site within the country, the cost will be that chargedby a reputable shipping company for delivery to the nominated site and will be invoicedaccordingly.

All thesecosts are additional and are usually referred to as C. Usually the instrument and system supplier adds a management charge, which iscalculated as a percentage of the C. Sometimes, however, C. They are referred to as at-cost charges. When the lattercourse is taken, usually an undisclosed amount somewhere in the factors enables theC. No business is a charitable institution; profitability is the name.

Appiled technology and instrumentation for process control of the game! For export especially by sea, the packaging is much sturdier and normally thecontractor requires the instrument and system supplier to adhere to its packingspecification. Air shipments do not require the same strict requirements. Export packing is always charged for as an extra. Management costs are once again accountedfor as an amount somewhere in the factors, though stated as either F.

The actual terms are typically stated as F. London or F. New York, or any other port as the case may be. After the vendor delivers goods to theport, all charges incurred i. Shipping and insurance are areas of specialist knowledge; the project manager is welladvised to seek this assistance as required, although a general overall knowledge isessential. Accordingly, it is useful to produce a close-out report upon the completion of a projectthat will review the running of the project and compare the schedules defined at theproject inception with the actual time required to complete the various tasks.

The reportmust also record any serious problems encountered and the steps taken to solve them. Where the difficulties were technical, then input from the project engineer will also beadvantageous. Every future project will benefit if the lessons learned on each project arediligently applied.

It is also necessary to produce a financial report that identifies the actual costs incurredover every aspect of the project and to draw comparisons with the original budget. Thissimilarly important report will give the finance department of the organization data thatcan be used that will allow a more refined and profitable business operation in the future. Strictly speaking, the terms marked with an asterisk are not found on contractualdocuments, but they are given here as a means of clarifying some of the other definitionswhere used.

Bankers Draft—Equivalent to a check drawn by a bank upon itself. It offers a personor a company a document in payment of goods or services with the absolute authority and. Project management and administration certainty of payment of the bank behind it. It is usually offered in payments in a foreigncountry. The bank should therefore be one of integrity and international repute. Bill of Exchange—An unconditional order, in writing, addressed by one person or firmto another and signed by the person giving it. It requires the person or firm addressed topay, on demand, or at some fixed determinable future date, a defined amount of money,to, or to the order of, a specified person, or to bearer.

Bill of Lading—Documentation that allows a consignment of goods to recipients sothat they can take possession of the same. No shipping company will release theconsignment unless these documents are presented to them because it represents the titleto the goods. Credit Note—A business document, usually printed in red to distinguish it from aninvoice, made out by the seller and raised when one person or firm returns goods toanother.

Usually, only two copies are made. It should show a the names and addressesof both parties, b the exact description of the goods being returned, and c the unitprice, number, and total value of the goods. Debit Note—A document made out by the seller whenever the purchaser of goods orservices has been undercharged on an invoice, or the seller wishes to make a charge onthe purchaser, which increases the amount owing to the seller by the purchaser.

They borrow money themselves and re-lend it to others as a means of investment. Inthe United Kingdom, if the borrowing is from a bank, the borrowing rate is fixed at1. They lend to the government, to banks, tocommercial firms, and to financial houses. All transactions are made by word of mouth inorder to keep the cost of borrowing down. Such a system is operated by many countries; for example, in the UnitedKingdom some foreign suppliers will accept pounds Sterling in payment for goods orservices, while others will demand payment in, say, U.

Import License—Authorization by the government to cover the importation of goodsinto the country. In the United Kingdom, all imported goods require this license;however, it is used mainly for statistical purposes. An Open GeneralLicense allows for unrestricted goods entry. It is important to appreciate that indemnitynever restores the insured to a better position than that which obtained before theoccurrence. Letter of Credit—A letter of credit is usually required in foreign dealings, for example,in the case of an overseas customer buying goods or services from a U.

Appiled technology and instrumentation for process control organization. The acceptance by the bank is very reliable andmeans that the bill will be discountable on the discount market. As soon as the authorityto establish the credit is received, the London bank issues a Letter of Credit declaring itswillingness to accept a Bill of Exchange against delivery of the shipping documents. Inthe event an overseas bank does not have a London branch, it makes the arrangementsthrough a correspondent bank in the United Kingdom.

However, the correspondent bankis under no obligation to accept the Bill of Exchange, thus making the method lessreliable for anyone discounting it. Damages—A term encompassing some critical elements such as Liquidated andConsequential Loss, which require consideration of both legal and financial aspects. It istherefore important that the reader be aware of these requirements and seek professionaladvice regarding these aspects. A project, depending on its size and the involvement of personnel and expertise required, can be handled in two ways, broadly speaking. The first uses the knowledge and capability of a dedicated assigned project manager, whose sole task is to run the project efficiently within budget and to schedule.

The second uses an experienced, capable technologist, who in addition to technical ability has the talent and competence to perform the tasks of project manager. A project manager is one who by specific academic qualification in business administration and experience, in addition to technical qualifications, is allocated the task of project management. Other project managers, though not possessing business administration qualifications, are enviable managers of the most demanding large-scale projects. Good project managers PMs have multifaceted personalities. Duties involved in this demanding job primarily require a persona of openness to and approachability by others in technical and commercial matters.

Since a PM is involved with people, he or she must be able to accept the foibles, haughtiness, and idiosyncrasies of individuals with grace, and yet in all dealings, be firm and fair. The PM has to be able to discern signs of serious trouble even in innocuous statements and must know how to listen to and heed advice given.

Instrumentation and Process Control System - The Plant at School – LabVolt Series 3531

For most major projects at least three project managers may be involved, each with a different set of priorities, depending on their position within the overall project structure. The first project manager represents the end user and has the principal aim of completing the project within the defined schedule and fulfilling the design criteria. The second project manager represents the contractor and usually works from a fixed. Project management and administration price contract with the end user and a schedule that incorporates plant constructions other than those directly applicable to the control system.

The third project manager representing the system supplier interacts directly with the main contractor and indirectly with the end user. The priorities are to complete the contract technically within the agreed time schedule and at minimum cost, thereby maximizing profit for the company. Every project has a definite point of inception, and in projects dealing with control systems, experience has taught that the end user of the process has definite ideas on the way the process and various control systems should behave.

If the process involves a chemical plant, then a major plant construction company could be involved. This organization would be responsible for the whole plant and would be allowed to manage the work involved with the entire job. The chosen construction company or contractor has particular expertise in certain types of manufacturing processes and several specialist departments dealing with different aspects of the process.

The contractor makes a profit based on his ability to produce the project within the bid price but at minimal cost to himself. In other words, the contractor is guaranteed a profit. When the development of a process plant involves using currently existing vacant land on the site, or the acquiring of land adjacent to the plant to accommodate the process, the development is referred to as a greenfield development.

The development of a greenfield site in project discussions between the manufacturer and the construction company will have to be more elaborate. In the United Kingdom, government departments the Department of the Environment, and Health and Safety to cite only two would also be involved. Government is involved because the proposed plant will have to comply with government regulations.

Program of Study

This intervention is unavoidable in most European countries and the United States. However, the rules that apply are not the same but vary from country to country. Feasibility studies are conducted before implementing an expansion of a process plant. Such a study examines the case from the point of view of a the process and b the financial and legal involvement.

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Under the heading of the process, consideration is given to the projected market for the envisaged product, the interfacing of the new plant with the existing plant, the continuity of manufacture while additions are being constructed, and the effect of an eventual shutdown when the new addition is brought onstream. Under the heading of financial and legal involvement, considerations are given to raising the required finance, to the ROI return on investment , to the legal implications of the addition, and to penalties for late or nondelivery.

Assessment of the financial risks involved is formalized into a study called the risk. Appiled technology and instrumentation for process control analysis. The risk analysis evaluates the effect of technical, scheduling, financial, and business decisions on the running of the project to a successful conclusion.

It also documents any necessary mitigating actions. After the contract has been awarded to the instrument and system manufacturer, the first or kickoff meeting is called at which the other team members will be established. It is assumed that the project engineer and administrator have already been involved and will therefore continue in these positions.

The project manager will, under normal circumstances be the only point of contact between the two organizations i. No individual instrument manufacturer can ever meet the needs of an entire process plant from his range of products. Hence, other suppliers of the required instruments lying outside their product range will be involved. These other suppliers are usually referred to as third party, and equipment supplied is known as bought-out items.

The critical path is so named because any failure in meeting the defined targets will almost certainly mean a man-hour overrun, which, combined with the attendant cost overrun that is inevitable, as well as departure from scheduled delivery, will spell disaster for the project. The target dates are usually referred to as milestones, and for obvious reasons the project manager and the project assistant keep a very close watch on these dates. The most important, and perhaps sometimes the most overlooked, aspect of project management is the management of system changes.

This has a direct impact on the cost and delivery of the system.

Instrumentation Technology Courses at ITI

ekozamipypav.tk: Applied Technology and Instrumentation for Process Control ( ): Douglas O. de Sa: Books. some read an uplifting story, and others may watch an inspiring ekozamipypav.tk I have quotes placed anywhere that I can see.

It is essential that any changes be identified immediately after they occur, and it is imperative that a system be established with the contractor as to how to handle these modifications. In the case of major changes, it may be necessary to halt the contract and to agree to a revised extended delivery date, based on obtaining approval of the changes both technically and commercially prior to resuming work.

The supply of missing data by the contractor can also have a direct effect on the project schedule and hence the costs. It is therefore vital that missing data be identified as early as possible within the project schedule, and the implications of any delay passed on to the contractor as soon as possible. A close-out report on the completion of a project reviews the running of the project and compares the schedules defined at project inception with the actual time required to complete the various tasks.

The report must also record any serious problems encountered and the steps that were taken to solve them. Where the difficulties were technical, then inputs from the project engineer will also be advantageous. Every future project will benefit if the lessons learned on each project are diligently applied. BibliographyAtkins, P. General Chemistry. Scientific American Books, Austin, George T. New York: McGraw Hill, Instrumentation Fundamentals for Process Control.

Lavigne, John R. Instrumentation Applications for the Pulp and Paper Industry. San Francisco: Miller Freeman Publications, Lewis Michael J. Libby, C. Earl —ed. Noltingk, B. Instrumentation Reference Book. Notes on Fan Engineering Ref. Belfast, N. Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook. Proudlove, R. The Science and Technology of Food. London: Forbes Publication, Abbot House, Ramsden, E. A-Level Chemistry. Shinskey, F.

Industrial Process Instrumentation

Distillation Control for Productivity and Energy Conservation. Energy Conservation through Control. New York: Academic Press Inc, Process Control Systems. Quick Upload.

Graduation Requirements

No business is a charitable institution; profitability is the name Appiled technology and instrumentation for process control of the game! This reaction releases sulfurous acid, which in turn corrodes the wiresand wool felts on the machine, making it necessary to use corrosion-resistant wires. They design, plan, research, evaluate, test and implement electrical and electromechanical systems that span the biomedical, chemical, civil, cyber, electrical, industrial, mechanical and nanosystems disciplines. Suitable precautions are taken to ensurethat information divulged is not disclosed to others. The output of controller LIC manipulates the control valvefitted across the fan pump.

Featured Examples. Creation Tutorial. Video Tutorial. Quick Upload Explore. Case Studies. Like this book? You can publish your book online for free in a few minutes! View in Fullscreen Report. Read the Text Version. No Text Content! The projected market—the necessity of the new product, together with an estimate of Appiled technology and instrumentation for process control the demand for it. In most instances, the manufacturer normally seeks and obtains process guarantees Project management and administration from the construction company awarded the contract to build. Based on the findings of the review, a workable process specification is drawn up defining the conditions that will meet the original request and, if necessary, put Appiled technology and instrumentation for process control forward guarantees of delivered product totals.

The payment strategy will be defined and will include, in addition to the normal payment for the project management costs, the methods by which the required plant equipment is to be paid for or whether constructors will purchase items on behalf of the Project management and administration client and be reimbursed on a regular basis. In view of the multiple types of contracts to behandled, the constructors will have to deal with each individually, and obtain terms andprices for the supply of all items of plant equipment, such as process vessels, pipe work, Appiled technology and instrumentation for process control pumps, motors, conveyor systems, instrumentation, and control equipment.

The immediate future is consideredbecause producing a bid is very costly indeed, and the likelihood of it coming to fruition Appiled technology and instrumentation for process control is indeterminate. Most instrument manufacturers usually Project management and administration ensure backward compatibility i.

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The Instrumentation ContentThe project manager, who will be in close contact with the department s preparing the Appiled technology and instrumentation for process control proposal for the field instrumentation, will be aware of the content of the offering beingmade, together with any special requirements that may be necessary.

The subtle Appiled technology and instrumentation for process control requirements of compatible material of construction for the instrument, or the possibilityof some control loops being overlooked, may become the source of later difficulties. The project manager will have to Project management and administration produce for each supplier a final purchase order and equipment specification for each ofthe bought out items instruments involved. The project administrator isresponsible for monitoring the situation developing with all external suppliers and for Project management and administration providing the project manager with regular and timely reports.

All projectdocumentation should be approved by the project engineer, but not before the relevant Appiled technology and instrumentation for process control engineer has fully checked the document and signed it off as being approved. However, a well-timed intervention by the instrument and system supplier can bringrewards—for instance, calling a project halt when the contractor ignores several timely Project management and administration and repeated requests for important information.

It must Appiled technology and instrumentation for process control be realized, however, that some overlap between areas is bound to exist, and, for thecontrol to be seamless, all engineers must collaborate. No business is a charitable institution; profitability is the name Appiled technology and instrumentation for process control of the game! It offers a personor a company a document in payment of goods or services with the absolute authority and Project management and administration certainty of payment of the bank behind it.

The second project manager represents the contractor and usually works from a fixed Project management and administration price contract with the end user and a schedule that incorporates plant constructions other than those directly applicable to the control system.