For this reason these components, especially MTs, represent very attractive targets for various chemically heavy metals Horiunova et al. Kordyum et al. The cytoskeleton also participates in the interaction of plant cells with pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi. With this in mind, it can be assumed that directed influence including the use of genetic engineering on the main structural components of the cytoskeleton could be powerful tools for the development of improved germplasm and new commercial products.
The manuscripts in this special issue reflect some new aspects of the plant cytoskeleton organization, signaling and functioning, and results from different groups of Ukrainian researchers, which focused on bringing together scientists working across the different instrumental scales. The paper of Raevsky et al.
As it was demonstrated, the surfaces and amino acid sequences of tubulin homologues from Arabidopsis thaliana are very similar to those from Homo sapiens. Thus, it is reasonable to observe the common mechanism of acetylation as a result of similar interaction modes in both organisms. However, all other partners and modifiers should be unique for A. Those protein partners found in H. The putative histone acetyltransferase ELP3, which is also enriched at MTs can be the most important candidate on this role Tran et al.
MTs play an important role in the regulation of autophagy development in yeast and animal as well as in plant cells. Olenieva et al.
Using A. At same time, higher plant phosphatomes were reconstructed already Samofalova et al. The homology of selected plant proteins and known protein phosphatase regulating structure and dynamics of MTs was confirmed on the basis of the results of their structural alignment, molecular dynamics, and conservativity in positions of functional importance.
Even nitration of tyrosine residues in many plant proteins including tubulin was described during last decade Yemets et al. The question about enzymatic mechanisms and functional role of this plant tubulin modification continues to be investigated. Krasylenko et al. It has been revealed by Plohovska et al.
According to the data obtained, it can be assumed that not only actin filaments act as NO sensors, but NO is also involved into plant cell response on low temperatures by the signaling via such important cytoskeleton machinery as actin network. Gene organization and expression of main cytoskeletal proteins represent strong interest from opening possibilities to use this knowledge for different molecular genetic purposes. For example, length polymorphism of tubulin gene introns is proposed even to assess genetic diversity in plant species Bardini et al.
Read the latest chapters of Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology at Volume 37, The Actin Cytoskeleton in the Apical Domain of Epithelial Cells. R. Brian. Purchase Aspects of the Cytoskeleton, Volume 37 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E- Book. View all volumes in this series: Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology.
Rabokon et al. In the paper of Pydiura et al. Intron positioning occurs at conservative sites, as observed in numerous other plant species. Flax actin genes show both intron length polymorphisms and variation in the number of introns that may be two or three.
It was found that expression levels of genes responsible for the synthesis of the secondary cell wall CesA4 and CesA7 are significantly higher than of primary cell wall genes CesA1 and CesA9 in all the samples studied. On the contrary, no substantial differences in the expression of CesA genes were found between the different subspecies of flax, except the expression of CesA genes in subspecies crepitans showed slightly low amplitude of changes when two stages have been compared.
Our research goal is to elucidate how bacteria coordinate key biological processes with their cellular architecture using molecular, biochemical, and cell biological techniques.
Metabolism Shapes the Cell. A DNA-binding protein defines the precise region of chromosome capture during Bacillus sporulation. RelA inhibits Bacillus subtilis motility and chaining. Oocytes at MII stage were treated with taxol for 30 or 60 minutes for immunostaining or western blotting. Oocytes were washed thoroughly and transferred to fresh medium without milrinone for meiosis resumption. After an additional 14 hours in culture, MII stage oocytes were collected for analysis.
Subsequent procedures were performed as described above.
MII plate thickness was measured by drawing two lines at the edges of PI staining and perpendicular to the spindle axis, defined by beta-tubulin staining. The distance between these two lines was used as the MII plate thickness. Each experiment was repeated at least three times. After removing unbound sample, beads were magnetically separated from target antigen through incubation in elution buffer for 5 minutes. Supernatant containing co-immunoprecipitation complex was processed for western blot analysis. All experiments were performed at least three times.
The authors declare they have no conflicts of interest that could be perceived as prejudicing the impartiality of the research reported. Conceived of and designed the experiments: C. Performed the experiments: A. Analyzed the data: A. Contributed to writing the manuscript: A. Inhibition of Rac1 GTPase activity affects porcine oocyte maturation and early embryo development.
Scientific reports. Meiotic spindle assembly and chromosome segregation in oocytes. The Journal of cell biology. Cullen CF and Ohkura H. Msps protein is localized to acentrosomal poles to ensure bipolarity of Drosophila meiotic spindles. Nature cell biology. ZYG-9, a Caenorhabditis elegans protein required for microtubule organization and function, is a component of meiotic and mitotic spindle poles. The microtubule-associated protein ASPM regulates spindle assembly and meiotic progression in mouse oocytes.
PloS one. The Drosophila microtubule-associated protein mars stabilizes mitotic spindles by crosslinking microtubules through its N-terminal region. A microtubule-associated zinc finger protein, BuGZ, regulates mitotic chromosome alignment by ensuring Bub3 stability and kinetochore targeting. Developmental cell.
Journal of cell science. XMAP activity sets spindle length by controlling the total mass of spindle microtubules. Regulated expression of the centrosomal protein DdCP affects microtubule dynamics and reveals mechanisms for the control of supernumerary centrosome number. Molecular biology of the cell. The Journal of biological chemistry. CDC2 phosphorylation of the fission yeast dis1 ensures accurate chromosome segregation. Current biology. Barr AR and Bakal C.
Slep KC. The role of TOG domains in microtubule plus end dynamics. Biochemical Society transactions. XMAP is a processive microtubule polymerase.
Kinetochores generate microtubules with distal plus ends: their roles and limited lifetime in mitosis. Royle SJ. The role of clathrin in mitotic spindle organisation. J Neurosci. Cassimeris L and Morabito J. TOGp regulates microtubule assembly and density during mitosis and contributes to chromosome directional instability. Cell motility and the cytoskeleton. The EMBO journal. Clathrin heavy chain 1 is required for spindle assembly and chromosome congression in mouse oocytes.
Microsc Microanal. Spc24 is required for meiotic kinetochore-microtubule attachment and production of euploid eggs. Cassimeris L and Spittle C. Regulation of microtubule-associated proteins. International review of cytology.