These bring to light wide variations in historical and cultural details, excavation and investigative methods used, items found and their interpretation, and their contributions to archaeology, history and heritage. Illustrated with diagrams, period photographs, and historical quotations, these chapters vividly reveal challenges and opportunities for researchers and heritage managers, and revisit powerful ethical questions that persist to this day.
Buy eBook. These are also the highest numbers in any war since the Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War entered into force on 19 June From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Person who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict. For other uses, see POW disambiguation and Prisoner of war disambiguation.
Further information: Prisoners of war in the American Revolutionary War. Main article: American Civil War prison camps. See also: World War I prisoners of war in Germany.
See also: German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war and Japanese war crimes. Captured soldiers of the British Indian Army executed by the Japanese. Main article: German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war.
Journal of American History. The camp gained unexpected fame when three young prisoners aged 18, 19, and 20 escaped during the early spring of This is mainly because the insurgents or terrorists never meet the requirements laid down by the Third Geneva Convention of such as being part of a chain of command , wearing a "fixed distinctive marking, visible from a distance", bearing arms openly, and conducting military operations in accordance with the laws and customs of war. From the very beginning, German policy on the treatment of Soviet prisoners of war POWs was determined by Nazi ideology. At Tannenberg 92, Russians surrendered during the battle. In some cases Ukrainians published their own periodicals in POW camps. Further Reading D.
Main article: U. Further information: War film. The Wooden Horse. Online Etymology Dictionary.
Retrieved 28 October Scientia Militaria. Retrieved 14 September Archived from the original PDF on 24 May Retrieved 24 May It was from these conscripted prisoners of war that the gladiators acquired their exotic appearance, a distinction being made between the weapons imagined to be used by defeated enemies and those of their Roman conquerors.
The Samnites a tribe from Campania which the Romans had fought in the fourth and third centuries BC were the prototype for Rome's professional gladiators, and it was their equipment that first was used and later adopted for the arena. Retrieved 19 October The Penguin Dictionary of Saints. New York: Penguin Books, When this dolorous decree, and pitifull proclamation was pronounced, pitie it was to see how some Frenchmen were suddenlie sticked with daggers, some were brained with pollaxes, some slaine with malls, others had their throats cut, and some their bellies panched, so that in effect, having respect to the great number, few prisoners were saved.
King Henry V. Cambridge University Press. Europe: A History. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 18 January Retrieved 14 April The Course of Mexican History. Oxford University Press, 5th ed. Natural History. God's Rule: Government and Islam. Columbia University Press.
Islamic Texts Society, , p. Its History, Teaching, and Practices. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. University of Alabama Press. Grant stopped the prisoner exchange, and is thus responsible for all of the suffering in Civil War prisons on both sides — Andersonville National Historic Site U.
National Park Service ". Retrieved 28 July Archived from the original on 15 June Retrieved 10 December Retrieved 28 November National Geographic News. Retrieved 30 November Peace Pledge Union. Retrieved 6 April International Committee of the Red Cross. Says Prisoners Seem War-Weary". The New York Times. Phillimore and Hugh H. Robert B. Kane, Peter Loewenberg New York Times. Speed, III. Archived from the original on 9 May The Independent.
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London: Pan Books. Archived from the original on 20 March New York: Hill and Wang. Retrieved 29 November The Secret Betrayal. Charles Scribner's Sons. The House Built on Sand. Archived from the original on 19 December Archived from the original on 12 April Archived from the original on 16 February Harvard University Press. RAND Corporation, p. Aired: 20 July , 14h47 to 15h Note : See also Saint Helen's Island.
B and Foot, M. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 22 May September , pp. Munich, —74 , 1, pt. Not only Russia made use of such labour. France was given hundreds of thousands of German prisoners of war captured by the Americans, and their physical condition became so bad that the American Army authorities themselves protested. In England and the United States, too, some German prisoners of war were being put to work long after the surrender, and in Russia thousands of them worked until the mid's.
German migrants in post-war Britain: an enemy embrace.
Retrieved 15 December Views in the Media were mirrored in the House of commons, where the arguments were characterized by a series of questions, the substance of which were always the same. Here too the talk was often of slave labour, and this debate was not laid to rest until the government announced its strategy.
The Guardian. Retrieved 17 January Hungarian POW identified. BBC News , 17 September Victory in the Pacific, Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press. From the diaries of Charles Lindberg: as told by a US officer, "Oh, we could take more if we wanted to", one of the officers replied. Nippo soldiers are just so much machine-gun practice.
Too many of our soldiers are tied up guarding them. Retrieved 8 June Archived from the original on 17 January Archived from the original on 7 February Peterson, The American Occupation of Germany, pp 42, , "Some hundreds of thousands who had fled to the Americans to avoid being taken prisoner by the Soviets were turned over in May to the Red Army in a gesture of friendship. Retrieved 30 December April Retrieved 30 March University of Massachusetts Press. William C. Jeffries New Evidence Surfaces: Probe: Former Marine corporal spent 33 months as a prisoner and was interrogated by Soviet agents who thought he was a pilot".
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Munich Prison healthcare Criminology Penology Punishment Stanford prison experiment. The only dangers within the camps were the periodic political struggles among the prisoners. German soldiers committed to National Socialism Nazism fought with fellow prisoners who displayed anti-Nazi sentiments.
To head off such ideological conflicts, American camp personnel separated Nazi and anti-Nazi factions within Alabama's camps. Army officials then moved the two groups into special camps located outside of Alabama. Daily life for prisoners consisted largely of work and leisure.
Prisoners assigned to labor details worked either inside the camp or at nearby farms or businesses, as allowed under the Geneva Convention. During their free time, prisoners participated in a variety of leisure Prisoner Orchestra at Camp Opelika activities, such as soccer, and many of the prisoners organized into teams.
The wins and losses of soccer leagues at Camps Aliceville and McClellan were tracked in the camp newspapers. Each of the major camps established newspapers that featured prisoner essays, articles, short fiction, puzzles, and cartoons. Camp newspapers also featured reviews of prisoner musical performances. Prisoners also formed orchestras with instruments provided by the Army or donated by private charities. Some orchestras possessed remarkable performers. For instance, Camp Opelika's orchestra included several professional musicians and was directed by a professor from the Musical Conservatory of Hanover.
Prisoners also employed their creative talents in art studios, creating paintings, murals, sculptures, carvings, and other artwork. Each major camp established camp colleges, and prisoners could enroll in a wide variety of courses, including history, mathematics, the sciences, vocational courses, and preparatory classes for students seeking postwar careers in medicine, law, electrical engineering, and Prisoners of War at Camp Aliceville architecture.
The educational opportunities provided by these camp colleges proved popular.
For example, of Camp Opelika's 3, prisoners, some 1, participated in coursework. Initially, prisoners taught the courses. Later, prisoners were permitted to enroll in correspondence courses from the University of Michigan and the University of Wisconsin. Army officials even contacted the University of Alabama and the Alabama Polytechnic Institute now Auburn University to discuss offering courses to the prisoners.
But following Germany's defeat and the discovery of the atrocities of the Holocaust, American military officials feared the presence of Nazis among the college instructors and took control of the camp colleges. New courses were introduced, emphasizing America's history, society, and political structure, aimed at "re-educating" the prisoners. The prisoners received the best education about America, however, in their encounters with Americans while working on labor details. The economic dynamics of World War II resulted in the migration of millions of farm workers to cities, particularly among southern African Americans.
This migration created labor shortages and potential shortfalls in agricultural production. German POWs provided this labor, which proved essential in harvesting Alabama's important cash crops, such as cotton and peanuts.