Overview The Hypermoderns demonstrated their new ideas with games and victories. Aron Nimzowitsch, considered the founder and leading practitioner of hypermodernism, showed that games could be won through indirect control of the centre, breaking with Tarrasch's view that the centre must be occupied by pawns. Nimzowitsch advocated controlling the centre with distant pieces rather than with pawns, thus inviting the opponent to occupy the centre with pawns, which can then become targets of attack.
This was part of the hypermodern fr. ECO volume E. The first line of moves means that it contains openings beginning 1. The second line means it contains openings with 1. The title is given in eight languages. It is presented as a five-volume book collection now also a computer database describing chess openings. The moves were taken from hundreds of thousands of games between masters, from published analysis in the Chess Informant since , and then compiled by notable chess players.
These openings are typically provided in an ECO table that concisely presents the best opening lines. The books contain only a small amount of text, which is in eight languages. The bulk of the book consists of diagrams of positions and chess moves in In. The Pirc Defence peerts, though often mispronounced as purk , sometimes known as the Ufimtsev Defence or Yugoslav Defence, is a chess opening characterised by Black responding to 1.
Nf6, followed by Bg7, while allowing White to establish an impressive-looking centre with pawns on d4 and e4. It is named after the Slovenian grandmaster Vasja Pirc. General remarks The Pirc Defence is a relatively new opening; while it was seen on occasion in the late nineteenth century, it was considered irregular, thus remaining a sideline.
The opening began gaining some popularity only after World War II, and by the s it was regarded as playable, owing in large part to the efforts of Canadian grandmaster Duncan Suttles. Black, in hypermodern fashion, does not immediately stake a claim in the centre with pawns; rather, Black works to undermine White's centre from the flanks. Its first appearance in a World Championship match was in , when it was played by Bobby Fischer against B.
The French Defence is a chess opening characterised by the moves: 1. White has extra space in the centre and on the kingside and often plays for a breakthrough with f4—f5. The French has a reputation for solidity and resilience, although some lines such as the Winawer Variation can lead to sharp complications.
Black's position is often somewhat cramped in the early game; in particular, the pawn on e6 can impede the development of the bishop on c8. White makes a claim to the centre, while Black immediately challenges the pawn on e4. White's options include defending the e4-pawn with 3. HAL, after Poole's resignation: "Thank you for a very enjoyable game. Astronaut Dr. Frank Poole is seen playing a recreational game of chess with the HAL supercomputer. Poole views the board on a computer screen and dictates his moves orally to HAL using descriptive notation.
Poole is not surprised when the presumed infallible supercomputer soundly defeats him. The film's director Stanley Kubrick was a passionate chess player, so unlike many chess scenes shown in other films, the position and analysis make sense. The actual game seems to come from a tournament game between A. Roesch and W. Schlage, Hamburg Schlage HAL The Sicilian Defence is a chess opening that begins with the following moves: 1.
The drawback is that White often obtains an early initiative, so Black has to take care not to fall victim to a q. Nc3 d5 Black offers White the possibility of cxd5, when after Nxd5 White further gets the opportunity to kick the black knight around with e4, leading to an imposing central pawn duo for White.
If White does not take the d5-pawn, Black may eventually play In classical opening theory this imposing pawn centre was held to give White a large advantage, but the hypermodern school, which was coming to the fore in the s, held that a large pawn centre could be a liability rather than an asset. History The first instance of this opening is in an game by Moheschunder Bannerjee, an Indian player who had transitioned from Indian chess rules, playing Blac. The Modern Defense also known as the Robatsch Defence after Karl Robatsch is a hypermodern chess opening in which Black allows White to occupy the center with pawns on d4 and e4, then proceeds to attack and undermine this "ideal" center without attempting to occupy it himself.
The Modern Defense is closely related to the Pirc Defence, the primary difference being that in the Modern, Black delays developing his knight to f6. The delay of Nf6 attacking White's pawn on e4 gives White the option of blunting the g7-bishop with c2—c3.
There are numerous transpositional possibilities between the two openings. The Dutch Defence is a chess opening characterised by the moves: 1. Like its 1. The Dutch has never been a main line against 1. Its most notable use may have been in , when both World Champion Mikhail Botvinnik and his challenger, David Bronstein, played it in.
The Caro—Kann Defence is a chess opening characterised by the moves: 1. It often leads to good endgames for Black, who has the better pawn structure. History Mieses vs. Bd3 Bxd3 5. Qxd3 e6 6. Nf3 Qb6 9. Bb2 Rc8 E11, E, E. The Philidor Defence is a chess opening characterised by the moves: 1. His original idea was to challenge White's centre by the pawn thrust Today, the Philidor is known as a solid but passive choice for Black, and is seldom seen in top-level play except as an alternative to the heavily analysed openings that can ensue after the normal It is considered a good opening for amateur players who seek a defensive strategy that is simpler and easier to understand than the complex positions that result from an opening such as the French Defence.
Alekhine's Defence is a chess opening that begins with the moves: 1. White's imposing mass of pawns in the centre often includes pawns on c4, d4, e5, and f4. Grandmaster GM Nick de Firmian observes of Alekhine's Defence in MCO , "The game immediately loses any sense of symmetry or balance, which makes the opening a good choice for aggressive fighting players. Nf3 Modern Variation without Bg4 B 1.
Nf3 Bg4 Modern Variation with Bg4 History The opening is named after Alexander Alekhine, who introduced it in the Budapest tournament in games against Endre. The Nimzowitsch Defence is a somewhat unusual chess opening characterised by the moves: 1. Black's intent is to block or otherwise restrain White's central pawns and, if allowed to do so by inaccurate play by White, eventually undermine the White pawn centre by well-timed pawn advances of his own or by attacking the white pieces defending the centre.
World Champion Garry Kasparov and Grandmaster Raymond Keene wrote that it "has never been fully accepted as a dependable opening. Nevertheless it is sound and offers the maverick spirit a great deal of foreign territory to explore. Main line: 2. Black's main continuations are The English Opening is a chess opening that begins with the move: 1. White begins the fight for the centre by staking a claim to the d5-square from the wing, in hypermodern style.
Although many lines of the English have a distinct character, the opening is often used as a transpositional device in much the same way as 1. Nf3 — to avoid such highly regarded responses to 1. In , Chess Informant categorized the chess openings into five broad areas "A" through "E" , with each of those broken down into one hundred subcategories "00" through "99".
This is a list of chess openings by the ECO classification. A — Flank openings White first moves other than 1. Nf6: Atypical replies to 1. Nf6 A45—A49 1. Nf3 Nf6 Though this symmetrical response has a long history, it was first popularised by Alexander Petrov, a Russian chess player of the midth century.
In recognition of the early investigations by the Russian masters Petrov and Carl Jaenisch, this opening is called the Russian Game in some countries. The Petrov has a reputation of being dull and uninspired; however, it offers attacking opportunities for both sides, and a few lines are quite sharp.
Often a trade occurs and Black, after gaining a tempo, has a well-placed knight. Pillsbury's game in  against Emanuel Lasker testifies to this. The Fried Liver Attack, also called the Fegatello Attack named after an Italian idiom meaning "dead as a piece of liver" , is a chess opening. This opening is a variation of the Two Knights Defense in which White sacrifices a knight for an attack on Black's king.
The opening begins with the moves: 1. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bc4 Nf6 4. Ng5 d5 5. This is the Two Knights Defense where White has chosen the offensive line 4.
Ng5, but Black's last move is risky other Black choices include Na5, White can now get an advantage with 6. History The Fried Liver Attack has been known for many centuries, the earliest known example being a game played by Giulio Cesare Polerio before It is one of the most popular openings, with such a vast number of variations that all codes from C60 to C99 in the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings ECO are assigned to them.
Popular use of the Ruy Lopez opening did not develop, however, until the midth century, when the Russian theoretician Carl Jaenisch "rediscovered" its potential. The opening remains the most commonly used amongst the open games in master play; it has been adopted by almost.
The Pirc Defence peerts, though often mispronounced as purk , sometimes known as the Ufimtsev Defence or Yugoslav Defence, is a chess opening characterised by Black responding to 1. George Defence 1…e6 and …a6 by Andrew Martin 86 minutes. Bg7, while allowing White to establish an impressive-looking centre with pawns on d4 and e4. Topics: Dangerous Weapons chess series, Chess, Chess books collection. Getting the king safe: in the middle of the board, the king is somewhat exposed.
The Slav Defense is a chess opening that begins with the moves: 1. Although it was analyzed as early as , it was not until the s that it started to be explored extensively. Many masters of Slavic descent helped develop the theory of this opening, including Alapin, Alekhine, Bogoljubov, and Vidmar. The Slav received an exhaustive test during the two Alekhine—Euwe World Championship matches in and Played by 11 of the first 13 world champions, this defense was particularly favored by Euwe, Botvinnik, and Smyslov.
More recently the Slav has been adopted by Anand, Ivanchuk, Lautier, Short, and other top grandmasters, including use in six of the eight games that Vladimir Kramnik played as Black in the World Championship in the other two, he played the related Semi-Slav Defense. Today the theory of the Slav is very extensive and well-developed.
General considerations There are three main variations of. The Queen's Gambit is a chess opening that starts with the moves: 1.
In the 18th century, it was recommended by Phillip Stamma and is sometimes known as the Aleppo Gambit in his honour. After the resumption of international chess activity following World War II, it was less frequently seen, as many Black players m.
The London System is a chess opening that usually arises after 1. Bf4, or 2. Nf3 and 3. It is a "system" opening that can be used against virtually any black defence and thus comprises a smaller body of opening theory than many other openings. It normally results in a closed game. Although it has the potential for a quick kingside attack, the white forces are generally flexible enough to engage in a battle anywhere on the board. Historically it developed into a system mainly from three variations: 1. Nf3 Nf6 3. Bf4 1. Nf3 e6 3. Nf3 g6 3.
The Benoni Defense is a chess opening characterized by the moves: 1. Genesis — the name of an book by Aaron Reinganum about several defenses against the King's Gambit and the Queen's Gambit. The Old Benoni may transpose to the Czech Benoni, but there are a few independent variations. This form has never attracted serious interest in high-level play, though Alexander Alekhine defeated Efim Bogoljubow with it in one game of their second match, in The Old Benoni is sometimes called the Blac.
The Albin Countergambit is a chess opening that begins with the moves: 1. In exchange for the gambit pawn, Black has a central wedge at d4 and gets some chances for an attack. Often White will try to return the pawn at an opportune moment to gain a positional advantage. History Although this opening was originally played by Cavallotti against Salvioli at the Milan tournament of , it takes its name from Adolf Albin, who played it against Emanuel Lasker in New York Though it is not played frequently at the master level, Russian grandmaster Alexander Morozevich has recently made some successful use of it.
Nf3 Nc6 The m. Nc3 where White intends to follow up with f2—f3, usually on the fourth move. White obtains a tempo and a half-open f-file in return for a pawn, and as with most gambits, White aims to achieve rapid development and active posting of his pieces in order to rapidly build up an attack at the cost of the gambit pawn.
It is one of the very few gambits available to White after 1. The Accelerated Dragon or Accelerated Fianchetto is a chess opening variation of the Sicilian Defence that begins with the moves: 1. Nxd4 g6 The Accelerated Dragon features an early An important difference between this line and the Dragon is that Black avoids playing Black also avoids the Yugoslav Attack, but since White has not been forced to play Nc3 yet, 5. The Accelerated Dragon generally features a more positional style of play than many other variations of the Sicilian.
Bc4 One of the main lines continues: 5. Nc3 Bg7 6. Be3 Nf6 7. Bc4 see diagram. At this point the most important Black continuations are White should not castle queenside after Qa5, unlike in th. Immortal Game animation.
Anderssen shown playing white. The Immortal Game was a chess game played by Adolf Anderssen and Lionel Kieseritzky on 21 June in London, during a break of the first international tournament. The bold sacrifices made by Anderssen to secure victory have made it one of the most famous chess games of all time. Anderssen gave up both rooks and a bishop, then his queen, checkmating his opponent with his three remaining minor pieces.
In , Bill Hartson called the game an achievement "perhaps unparalleled in chess literature". His strength was shown most favourably when giving great odds to weak players; agai. A common opening sequence is 1. Bg2, and others are part of E Black has two main approaches to choose between: in the Open Catalan he plays In the Closed Catalan, Black does not capture on c4; his game can be somewhat cramped for a while, but is quite solid.
The Catalan is generally seen as a safe way for White to get a small advantage. History The Catalan derives its name from Catalonia, after tournament organisers at the Barcelona tournament asked Savielly Tartakower to create a new variation in homage to the area's chess history. Although the Center Counter Defense has never enjoyed widespread popularity among top-flight players, Joseph Henry Blackburne and Jacques Mieses often played it, and greatly developed its theory in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
It was an occasional choice in this era for top players including Siegbert Tarrasch, Rudolph Spielmann, and Savielly Tartakower. The Two Knights Defense is a chess opening that begins with the moves: 1. Bc4 Nf6 First recorded by Polerio c. Black's third move is a more aggressive defense than the Giuoco Piano Black invites White to attack his f7-pawn with 4. If White accepts the offer, the game quickly takes on a tactical character: Black is practically forced to give up a pawn for the initiative.
The complications are such that David Bronstein suggested that the term "defense" does not fit, and that the name "Chigorin Counterattack" would be more appropriate. In modern grandmaster play, 3. Bc4 is far less common than 3.
Bb5, and the more solid Bc5 is the usual reply, so the Two Knights Defense is infrequently. Owen's Defence also known as the Queen's Fianchetto Defence or Greek Defence is an uncommon chess opening defined by the moves: 1. The downside of this plan is that White can occupy the centre with pawns and gain a spatial advantage. Moreover, Owen's Defence is classified as.
It was later discussed by Solomon W. Most considerations of this problem in literature provide solutions "in the conceptual sense" without proofs. The King's Gambit is a chess opening that begins with the moves: 1. If Black accepts the gambit, White has two main plans. The first is to play d4 and Bxf4, regaining the gambit pawn with central domination. The alternative plan is to play Nf3 and Bc4 followed by , when the semi-open f-file allows White to barrel down onto the weakest point in Black's position, the pawn on f7.
Theory has shown that in order for Black to maintain the gambit pawn, they may well be forced to weaken their kingside, with moves such as A downside to the King's Gambit is that White weakens their own king's position, exposing it to the latent threat of Indian Game, Anti-Nimzo-indian E Opening Comments Popularity Graph.
Submit Cancel. Please Enter Problem Details. Too Short - Extra Moves. Nf3 Bxf3 : Too Long - Finish Move e. Game Comments. Candidate Moves. Related Openings. Game Details Players Player Name s :. Player Rating:. Opponent Name s :.
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