When storing digital records over time, ensure that the storage devices and the facilities housing them can appropriately protect the records and make them accessible. Digital storage devices are susceptible to dust and fluctuations in humidity, temperature and radiation, and it is important to ensure that stable environmental conditions are maintained.
Information Storage and Management: Storing, Managing, and Protecting Digital Information in Classic,. Virtualized, and Cloud Environments. Storing, Managing, and Protecting Digital Information. Storing, Managing . Chapter 1 Introduction to Information Storage and Management. 3. Information.
Computer hardware and digital storage media can become obsolete rapidly. Software changes may also require format conversion to ensure that information remains accessible. It is imperative to continuously monitor digital records and refresh them as needed. Deterioration of digital storage devices does not become obvious until the point of data loss, by which time it can be too late to salvage records.
A regular back-up strategy can mitigate this risk. When storage devices are replaced or upgraded, check that records that need to be refreshed or migrated are all included. It is also an excellent opportunity to dispose of information that is due for disposal in accordance with a relevant records authority. Outsourcing storage of digital information can relieve pressure on storage capacity and ICT resources while reducing costs. The National Archives' advice on Outsourcing Digital Storage , the Records Management Risk Assessment Template and the Checklist for Cloud computing and information management provide a helpful understanding of the potential risks and considerations associated with outsourcing storage of your agency's data.
Skip to content Skip to primary navigation. Getting started Digital Continuity Information Management Standard Information governance Building interoperability Check-up PLUS Records authorities Selecting National Archives Managing information Types of information Systems that manage information Creating records Capturing information Describing information Accessing information Protecting information Storing information Storing digital information Outsourcing digital storage Cloud computing and information management Storing physical records Storage and charges at the Archives Preserving information Disposing of information Support and professional development Managing records of Commonwealth persons.
Key points. What to consider when storing digital information Conduct regular integrity checks Integrity checks, for example using checksum, are important to ensure that there has been no inadvertent change, deterioration or data loss.
This program provides comprehensive support to institutes, including teaching aids, faculty guides, student projects, and more. EMC Proven Professional is the premier certifica- tion program that validates your knowledge and helps establish your credibility in the information technology industry.
Structure and Organization of FC Data 6. NAS Devices 7. Host-Based Remote Replication We have become information Key Concepts Data and Information dependents of the twenty-first century, liv- ing in an on-command, on-demand world that Structured and Unstructured Data means we need information when and where it Storage Technology Architectures is required.
We access the Internet every day to perform searches, participate in social network- Core Elements of a Data Center ing, send and receive e-mails, take pictures and Information Management videos through digital cameras, and satisfy many other personal and professional needs. Equipped Information Lifecycle Management with a growing number of content-generating devices, more information is being created by individuals than by businesses.
Information created by individuals gains value when shared with others. When created, information resides locally on devices such as cell phones, cameras, and laptops. To share this information, it needs to be uploaded via networks to data centers. It is interesting to note that while the majority of information is created by individuals, it is stored and managed by a relatively small number of organizations. Figure depicts this virtuous cycle of information. The importance, dependency, and volume of information for the business world also continue to grow at astounding rates.
Businesses depend on fast and reliable access to information critical to their success. Some of the business applications that process information include airline reservations, telephone billing systems, e-commerce, ATMs, product designs, inventory management, e-mail archives, Web portals, patient records, credit cards, life sciences, and global capital markets. The volume of data that busi- ness must manage has driven strategies to classify data according to its value and create rules for the treatment of this data over its life cycle.
These strategies not only provide financial and regulatory benefits at the business level, but also manageability benefits at operational levels to the organization. Data centers now view information storage as one of their core elements, along with applications, databases, operating systems, and networks.
Storage technology continues to evolve with technical advancements offering increas- ingly higher levels of availability, security, scalability, performance, integrity, capacity, and manageability. It introduces the information lifecycle management ILM strategy, which aligns the infor- mation technology IT infrastructure with business priorities. Chapter 1 n Introduction to Information Storage and Management 5 1. Storage is a repository that enables users to store and retrieve this digital data. Before the advent of computers, the procedures and methods adopted for data creation and sharing were limited to fewer forms, such as paper and film.
Data in this form is called digital data and is accessible by the user only after it is processed by a computer. This enables the conversion of various types of content and media from conventional forms to digital formats. This cost benefit has increased the rate at which data is being generated and stored. Inexpensive and easier ways to create, collect, and store all types of data, coupled with increasing individual and business needs, have led to accelerated data growth, popularly termed the data explosion.
Data has different purposes and criticality, so both individuals and businesses have contributed in varied proportions to this data explosion. The importance and the criticality of data vary with time. Most of the data created holds significance in the short-term but becomes less valuable over time. This governs the type of data storage solutions used.
Businesses generate vast amounts of data and then extract meaningful information from this data to derive economic benefits. Therefore, busi- nesses need to maintain data and ensure its availability over a longer period. Chapter 1 n Introduction to Information Storage and Management 7 Furthermore, the data can vary in criticality and may require special han- dling.
For example, legal and regulatory requirements mandate that banks maintain account information for their customers accurately and securely. Some businesses handle data for millions of customers, and ensures the security and integrity of data over a long period of time. This requires high- capacity storage devices with enhanced security features that can retain data for a long period.
Structured data is organized in rows and col- umns in a rigidly defined format so that applications can retrieve and process it efficiently. Structured data is typically stored using a database management system DBMS. Data is unstructured if its elements cannot be stored in rows and columns, and is therefore difficult to query and retrieve by business applications. For example, customer contacts may be stored in various forms such as sticky notes, e-mail messages, business cards, or even digital format files such as.
Due its unstructured nature, it is difficult to retrieve using a cus- tomer relationship management application. Unstructured data may not have the required components to identify itself uniquely for any type of processing or interpretation. Businesses are primarily concerned with managing unstructured data because over 80 percent of enterprise data is unstructured and requires significant storage space and effort to manage.
Businesses need to analyze data for it to be of value. Information is the intelligence and knowledge derived from data. Businesses analyze raw data in order to identify meaningful trends. On the basis of these trends, a company can plan or modify its strategy. Effective data analysis not only extends its benefits to existing businesses, but also creates the potential for new business opportunities by using the information in creative ways.
Job portal is an example. These websites collect the resumes and post them on centrally accessible locations for prospective employers. In addition, companies post avail- able positions on job search sites. In this manner, the job search engine uses data and turns it into information for employers and job seekers. Legal, regulatory, and contractual obligations regarding the availability and protection of data only add to these concerns.
Outages in key industries, such as financial services, telecommunications, manufacturing, retail, and energy cost millions of U. In a computing environment, devices designed for storing data are termed storage devices or simply storage. The type of storage used varies based on the type of data and the rate at which it is created and used. Businesses have several options available for storing data including internal hard disks, external disk arrays and tapes.
Chapter 1 n Introduction to Information Storage and Management 9 1. In earlier implementations of open systems, the storage was typically internal to the server. The proliferation of departmental servers in an enterprise resulted in unpro- tected, unmanaged, fragmented islands of information and increased operating cost.
Originally, there were very limited policies and processes for managing these servers and the data created. Storage can be either internal or external to the server. External DAS alleviated the challenges of limited internal storage capacity. Storage is partitioned and assigned to a server for accessing its data.
Unlike a SAN, it connects to an existing communication net- work LAN and provides file access to heterogeneous clients.
Because it is purposely built for providing storage to file server applications, it offers higher scalability, availability, performance, and cost benefits compared to general purpose file servers. Data centers store and manage large amounts of mission-critical data. The data center infrastructure includes computer stor- age systems, network devices, dedicated power backups, and environmental controls such as air conditioning and fire suppression.
Large organizations often maintain more than one data center to distribute data processing workloads and provide backups in the event of a disaster. The storage requirements of a data center are met by a combination of various stor- age architectures. A DBMS optimizes the storage and retrieval of data. These core elements are typically viewed and managed as separate entities, but all the elements must work together to address data processing requirements.
It is necessary to have a reliable infrastructure that ensures data is accessible at all times.
The various technologies and solutions to meet these requirements are covered in this book. The inability of users to access data can have a significant negative impact on a business. In addition to the security measures for client access, specific mechanisms must enable servers to access only their allocated resources on storage arrays. Business growth often requires deploying more servers, new applications, and additional databases. The storage solution should be able to grow with the business. The infrastructure should be able to support performance requirements.
Any variation in data during its retrieval implies cor- ruption, which may affect the operations of the organization. When capacity requirements increase, the data center must be able to provide additional capacity with- out interrupting availability, or, at the very least, with minimal disruption. Capacity may be managed by reallocation of existing resources, rather than by adding new resources.
Manageability can be achieved through automation and the reduction of human manual intervention in com- mon tasks. The aspects of a data center that are monitored include security, performance, accessibility, and capacity.
Reporting tasks help to establish business justifications and chargeback of costs associated with data center operations. Provisioning activities include capac- ity and resource planning.
Resource planning is the process of evaluating and identifying required resources, such as personnel, the facility site , and the technology. Resource planning ensures that adequate resources are available to meet user and application requirements. If uti- lization of the storage capacity is properly monitored and reported, business growth can be understood and future capacity requirements can be anticipated. This helps to frame a proactive data management policy. Duplication of data to ensure high availability and repurpos- ing has also contributed to the multifold increase of information growth.
The value of information often changes over time. Framing a policy to meet these challenges involves understanding the value of information over its lifecycle. When data is first created, it often has the highest value and is used frequently. As data ages, it is accessed less frequently and is of less value to the organization. Understanding the information lifecycle helps to deploy appropriate storage infrastructure, according to the changing value of information. The value of the information is highest when a company receives a new sales order and processes it to deliver the product.
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After order fulfillment, the customer or order data need not be available for real-time access.